Everlyne N. Wosula, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Stephen N. Wegulo, and Gary L. Hein
Temperature is one of the key factors that influence viral disease development in plants. In this study, temperature effect on Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) replication and in planta movement was determined using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged virus in two winter wheat cultivars. Virus-inoculated plants were first incubated at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C for 21 days, followed by 27°C for 14 days; and, in a second experiment, virus-inoculated plants were initially incubated at 27°C for 3 days, followed by 10, 15, 20, and 25°C for 21 days. In the first experiment, WSMV-GFP in susceptible ‘Tomahawk’ wheat at 10°C was restricted at the point of inoculation whereas, at 15°C, the virus moved systemically, accompanied with mild symptoms, and, at 20 and 25°C,WSMV elicited severe WSMV symptoms. In resistant ‘Mace’ wheat (PI 651043),WSMV-GFP was restricted at the point of inoculation at 10 and 15°C but, at 20 and 25°C, the virus infected systemically with no visual symptoms. Some plants that were not systemically infected at low temperatures expressed WSMV-GFP in regrowth shoots when later held at 27°C. In the second experiment, Tomahawk plants (100%) expressed systemic WSMV-GFP after 21 days at all four temperature levels; however, systemic WSMV expression in Mace was delayed at the lower temperatures. These results indicate that temperature played an important role in WSMV replication, movement, and symptom development in resistant and susceptible wheat cultivars. This study also demonstrates that suboptimal temperatures impair WSMV movement but the virus rapidly begins to replicate and spread in planta under optimal temperatures.